so maybe we shouldn’t have used that
much hand sanitizer in our alcohol video it’s Michelle from Lab Muffin Beauty
Science chemistry PhD and slight hypochondriac (I just want to be pure) so
there’s a bit of a pandemic going on right now SARS-CoV-2 is a coronavirus which causes the disease COVID 19 which is spreading at an alarming
rate worldwide this disease usually causes mild symptoms in most people
especially if you’re young and healthy but in older people it has a much higher
rate of hospitalization and death it also gets passed along pretty easily
which is why it’s a good idea to try to slow down the transmission this idea is
commonly referred to as flattening the curve so that hospitals don’t get
overwhelmed with too many patients and so they can give everyone the help they
need one of the ways that this coronavirus can get passed along is through
your hands so you might touch a surface which has the virus then touch your
hands or nose or mouth and that then infects your respiratory tract and even
if you’re not in a high risk category it’s often not a very pleasant disease
to have and you risk passing it on to people who are more vulnerable so a lot
of health authorities around the world are recommending that everyone washes
the hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and water and to use hand sanitizer
when this isn’t possible naturally a lot of people have been buying up hand
sanitizer and not just for making a video about alcohol in skincare which
means that in some places there’s a shortage and so there’s a lot of DIY
hand sanitizer recipes going around and homemade hand sanitizer being sold and
some people just want to avoid the chemicals that go into hand sanitizers
by making their own now I think most people who are sharing these recipes are
doing this with good intentions there are some people of course who are just
trying to make a quick buck but making a hand sanitizer that works is not quite
as easy as it sounds a commercial product is much more reliable it’s very
very easy to mess up a DIY recipe and some of these DIY recipes just probably
aren’t going to work even if you make them perfectly and if you use a hand
sanitizer that you think is working even though it isn’t then you are putting
yourself at risk so I’m going to go through some of
the hand sanitizer recipes I’ve seen online and tell you whether or not
they’re going to work spoiler alert a lot of them aren’t going to work if you
like the sort of video click the thumbs up subscribe to my channel and click the
notification bell so you don’t miss any videos first let’s start with a
recipe that will work if you make it properly the World Health Organization’s
hand sanitizer recipe firstly note that these recipes are for making 10 litres
which most of us don’t need also note that the World Health Organization says
these recipes are meant to be used when you don’t have a commercial product
around commercial products contain lots of inactive ingredients which help the
product work better so for example a thickening agent which makes it easier
to spread on your hands so there are three components in these hand sanitizer
recipes firstly there’s a high alcohol concentration you need a high alcohol
concentration 60 to 95 percent to reliably destroy viruses this alcohol
concentration is high enough to break down the envelope around the coronavirus
and to denature the proteins inside it so that it can’t infect you
the other two ingredients are glycerol and hydrogen peroxide
glycerol which is more commonly known as glycerin in beauty products is a
humectant moisturizer it’s there to keep your hands moisturised because alcohol can
dry out your skin other moisturizing ingredients will also work for this but
it’s best to use something water-based alcohol-based hand sanitizers don’t work
that well on greasy hands the grease can help protect viruses so it’s safest not
to use something oil-based hydrogen peroxide is also included at a low
concentration and this is there to help kill any remaining bacterial spores in
your ingredients or on your equipment it’s not actually there to help actively
kill any germs on your hands in the World Health Organization guide to
making these hand sanitizers there’s a lot of advice on things like sterilizing
your containers and quality control these are important if you want to make
a hand sanitizer that will sanitize your hands properly if all you care about is
whether or not it can kill the coronavirus then these are a bit less
important what you really need is that high alcohol concentration and apart
from a high alcohol concentration pretty much nothing else is considered
effective against the coronavirus as of now and this includes things like
benzalkonium chloride and other cationic detergents that you find in
alcohol-free hand sanitizers these work well against bacteria but generally not
so well against viruses which is why health authorities recommend using an
alcohol-based one where possible so unsurprisingly essential oils aren’t
considered effective even if whoever’s selling them to you is saying otherwise
even if an essential oil has been found to be effective against one type of
virus it doesn’t necessarily mean that it’s going to be effective against this
brand new coronavirus the coronavirus is not the same as a flu virus and even
if an essential oil is effective against the coronavirus the concentration is
really important just like for alcohol if there isn’t enough it’s not going to
work and that data just doesn’t exist yet we don’t know how much essential oil
we need to kill coronavirus for some oils maybe even a hundred percent isn’t
enough this applies to all the essential oils you see thieves oil tea tree oil
lavender oil lemon essential oil so anything without alcohol you pretty much
can’t trust so that means all of these recipes that are some variation of
something with a few drops of essential oil added to it with no alcohol they
will not work and you’ll see tons of these so aloe vera with essential oil no
water and aloe vera gel with essential oil no fractionated coconut oil with
essential oil no boiled water with essential oil no so a lot of these
recipes use something called doterra’s On Guard
and interestingly they do have an on guard sanitizing mist and the reason it
works and that they can sell it as a sanitizing mist is because it contains a
ton of alcohol in addition to the essential oils it’s the alcohol that
lets them make this claim not the essential oils I think one of the
hardest things to work out when it comes to a DIY hand sanitizer recipe is the
final concentration of alcohol when you hear that health authorities recommend
at least 60% alcohol they mean 60% alcohol in the final hand sanitizer this
doesn’t mean that you can use anything with 60% alcohol and toss it into a
recipe and it will work if you put a drop of 60% alcohol into a giant tub of
aloe vera that is not going to work sixty percent is three parts in five
which is pretty close to two parts to one so if you’re using 95 or 99% alcohol
and you’re using two parts to one then chances are you are above 60% you’re
pretty close to 2/3 which is 67% so for example this common recipe that I’ve
been seeing around will actually give you a high enough concentration of
alcohol but if you mix in a lower concentration of alcohol then your final
concentration in the recipe will be lower so here’s a table showing you what
happens when you use a less concentrated alcohol product to make this recipe you
can see the lowest you can use is 90% I’d recommend using a higher
concentration or adding a bit more alcohol because some of the alcohol will
evaporate during the process and during storage and after you start using it
I’ve calculated the minimum milliliters you need per hundred milliliters of
final hand sanitizer that you need for a lot of common concentrations of alcohol
products and these will give you the minimum sixty percent alcohol at the end
so you can see that even with a hundred percent alcohol you’re going to need at
least three parts in five with the common two parts to one recipe you need
at least 90% alcohol and if your only source of alcohol in a hand sanitizer
recipe is less than 60 percent alcohol you will never get 60 percent alcohol in
your final product so for example witch hazel contains 15 to 30 percent alcohol
this will never give you more than 60 percent so all of these recipes which
have witch hazel as the only alcohol containing component these will not
protect you and these ones even use alcohol free witch hazel which obviously
is not going to work this one has a tablespoon of pure witch hazel even if
this witch hazel has 30% alcohol you end up with 0.6 percent alcohol in your
final product this particular recipe has 10 mL of witch hazel and 10 mL of
isopropyl alcohol which actually could work so if you’re using a hundred
percent isopropyl alcohol and witch hazel containing 30 percent you will
actually end up with sixty five percent alcohol since they don’t specify the
concentration of alcohol you need or the concentration of alcohol in the witch
hazel I think they just got lucky with their proportions with recipes
containing drinking alcohol drinking alcohol typically only contains 40%
maximum if you see the word proof that means double the concentration so for
example 90 proof means 45% alcohol that means that you need a minimum of a
120 proof to get 60% alcohol and this is incredibly rare so
if you’re making your own hand sanitizer recipe you need something that looks
more like this rather than like this so using vodka generally won’t work unless
you have very very high alcohol vodka 90 proof vodka isn’t going to work rubbing
alcohol will work this recipe if you use one and a quarter cups of a hundred
percent rubbing alcohol then you will get 67 percent which will work but using
90 proof vodka will not all of these recipes that say you can use rubbing
alcohol or vodka this only works if you’re using very high percentage vodka
vodka is not a good substitute for this sort of thing unless you are using
undrinkable vodka I’ve calculated the actual alcohol concentrations and a
bunch of these recipes that I found online so you can see how weak your
final alcohol ends up being I’m going to be ignoring the drops of essential oil
in these recipes because it’ll only increase the volume by a really small
amount so this recipe recommends using 60% or higher if you use 60% you will
get 40% alcohol for this recipe to give you a final concentration of at least
60% you’ll need at least a 90% alcohol product this next one which was very
popular uses four parts aloe vera gel to one part 70% alcohol and this gives you
a final concentration of 14% alcohol this one is 1/3 rubbing alcohol
one-third aloe vera gel one-third witch hazel assuming there’s no alcohol in the
witch hazel which is probably the case you end up with 33% so the reason we
don’t use pure alcohol to sanitize our hands and surfaces is because firstly
alcohol evaporates very quickly and so if it’s mixed with something water-based
that means that it evaporates slower it has a longer contact time with the germs
and so they’re more likely to die the other reason is that if you use a
hundred percent alcohol sometimes the outside of a microbe will become
hardened to further damage and so having a bit of water in there is important but
if you have too much water you will end up with an ineffective product because
you don’t have enough alcohol and again it’s the concentration of alcohol in the
final mixed product that you care about even if you’re using a
high concentration alcohol ingredient that doesn’t mean that you can just
dilute it as much as you like this one uses seven parts 70% alcohol with three
parts aloe vera gel this gives you a final concentration of forty nine
percent alcohol a third of a cup of isopropyl alcohol with a quarter cup of
moisturizing ingredient this one gives you 57 percent as your final
concentration this one uses one tablespoon of alcohol with a minimum of
60 percent in 8 ounces of pure aloe vera gel if you use a hundred percent alcohol
you end up with about six percent alcohol in your final product so with
these recipes even if you have pure alcohol you need at least 60% of your
recipe most of your recipe to be that alcohol so the recipe you’re using is
vital to giving you that high concentration that you need to kill
coronavirus this next one uses one cup aloe vera gel to 2/3 of a cup of rubbing
alcohol of 70% or higher with a hundred percent rubbing alcohol you end up with
a final concentration of forty percent if you use 70 percent you end up with 28
percent this one has rubbing alcohol as an
option I’m not even going to talk about that this one uses two tablespoons of
91% isopropyl alcohol and three tablespoons of aloe vera gel this gives
you a final concentration of 36% this recipe uses one teaspoon of rubbing
alcohol in a quarter cup of aloe vera gel and then distilled water to get it
to your desired consistency with a hundred percent rubbing alcohol the
maximum you can get with this is five percent alcohol and alcohol is not
optional in a hand sanitizer no I’ve made an alcohol concentration calculator
where you can put in the percentage of alcohol you’re using the recipe you’re
using and it will calculate the final alcohol concentration for you I’ve put
the link in the description of this video
this recipe is interesting because it actually uses diluted soap so the reason
soap is recommended for dealing with coronavirus is because the soap
molecules can dissolve the envelope around the virus much like how alcohol
does the other reason so it works so well is that you don’t have to worry
about whether or not your hands are too greasy and that grease is protecting the
microbes so it will just get rid of the whole blob of grease with the microbes
inside it leaving soap on your hands is
also not a great idea there are quite a lot of studies that have found that
using soap and water to wash your hands is more damaging to your skin than using
an alcohol-based hand rub and Stephen and I went through a lot of these studies in
our video on alcohol and skincare so using soap in a hand sanitizer recipe
where you’re not going to rinse your hands afterwards is probably going to
lead to a lot of irritation so I wouldn’t recommend this so a couple of
extra tips for using hand sanitizers effectively using a tiny blob of hand
sanitizer usually isn’t that effective you need to have enough to coat your
hands entirely and it should stay wet for about 20 seconds so that’s another
advantage of using a commercial product usually it has a dispensing mechanism
and it tells you exactly how much you need so for example this is one to two
pumps you should allow your hands to air dry after you’ve applied the hand
sanitizer and not wash it off because again that alcohol needs to have a long
enough contact time with the viruses and bacteria to kill them so I hope this was
a useful video for you all I know that it can be quite scary because we’re in a
situation where we don’t have that much information but there’s a saying that
goes just because science doesn’t have all the answers doesn’t mean you can
fill in all the gaps with whatever crap you have that is paraphrased make sure
you check health authorities for the best advice on how to protect yourself
and your loved ones if you like this video click the thumbs up you can
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letting me know what you want me to talk about next you can also follow me on
instagram at @labmuffinbeautyscience and check out my blog for lots and lots
of nerding out about beauty I will see you next time where I’ll probably be
talking about how to make your own toilet paper